Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. The biodiversity we see today is the result of billions of years of evolution, shaped by natural processes and, increasingly, by the influence of humans. It forms the web of life of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend.

This diversity is often understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals and micro-organisms. So far, about 1.75 million species have been identified, mostly small creatures such as insects. Scientists reckon that there are actually about 13 million species, though estimates range from 3 to 100 million.

Biodiversity also includes genetic differences within each species, for example, between varieties of crops and breeds of livestock. Chromosomes, genes, and DNA, the building blocks of life, determine the uniqueness of each individual and each species.

Yet another aspect of biodiversity is the variety of ecosystems that occur, such as deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes, rivers, and agricultural landscapes. In each ecosystem, living creatures, including humans, form a community, interacting with one another and with the air, water, and soil around them.

It is the combination of life forms and their interactions with each other and with the rest of the environment that has made Earth a uniquely habitable place for humans. Biodiversity provides a large number of ‘goods and services’ that sustain our lives.

‘Goods and Services’ provided by biological diversity include:

provision of food, fuel and fibre eg fish, livestock and crop varieties

provision of shelter and building materials eg timber for construction

provision of medicines

purification of air and water

detoxification and decomposition of wastes

stabilization and moderation of the Earth’s climate

moderation of floods, droughts, temperature extremes and the forces of wind

generation and renewal of soil fertility, including nutrient cycling

pollination of plants, including many crops

control of pests and diseases

maintenance of genetic resources as key inputs to crop varieties and livestock breeds, medicines, and other products

cultural and aesthetic benefits

ability to adapt to change

(Taken from https://www.heritagecouncil.ie/content/files/guidelines_production_local_biodiversity_action_plans_draft_2003_546kb.pdf)